Memory disorders have either a neurological or a psychological basis. Moreover both types may involve either a discrete (transient) episode of memory loss or a more persisting memory disorder.
The assessment, study and treatment of memory disorder is part of neuropsychology, the subdiscipline of psychology concerned with the relationship between brain damage and psychological processes.
The first step in assessing a patient with a memory disorder is to determine whether the disorder is organic or psychogenic by studying the patient’s medical record.
The amnesia syndrome is only one of the memory disorders that can be caused by brain damage. Lesions in different brain regions can in fact cause memory to break down in several distinct ways. The resultant memory syndrome can be dovded into the following groups:
*Disorder of immediate memory
*Disorders of previous well-established, primarily semantic memory
*Memory disorders caused by damage to the prefrontal association neocortex
*The amnesic syndrome
*Disorders of skill learning and memory
*Disorders of classical conditioning
*Disorders of non-associative kinds of memory such as habituation
Disorder of memory
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